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CANDU History


George C. Laurence builds one of the world’s first nuclear reactors at the National Research Council laboratories in Ottawa.


National Research Council builds nuclear research facility at Chalk River, Ontario. 


Canada becomes the second country to control nuclear fission in a reactor – the ZEEP (zero energy experimental pile) at Chalk River.


Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is created to develop peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 


Wilfrid B. Lewis initiates the development of the CANDU reactor through cooperation between AECL, Ontario Hydro and Canadian General Electric Company. 


The NPD (Nuclear Power Demonstration) reactor – Canada’s first electricity-producing reactor – comes online feeding power to the Canadian electricity grid for the first time. The 20 MWe reactor successfully demonstrates the feasibility of the CANDU concept with on-power refuelling and heavy water moderator and coolant. 


The Douglas Point facility – Canada’s first full-scale nuclear generating station – comes online. Operated by Ontario Hydro, the reactor uses the CANDU design. 


The first CANDU reactor begins commercial operation (at Pickering A Unit 1) in Ontario. It produces more electricity than any other nuclear power facility at the time.        


In Canada, Point Lepreau and Gentilly-2 begin commercial operation. Two more CANDU 6 units in Argentina and Korea begin commercial operation this year as well. CANDU reactors hold seven of the top 10 places for lifetime performance.

1984-1987  Four 915 MWe reactor units begin operation at Ontario Hydro’s Bruce B site. 

The CANDU reactor is ranked as one of Canada’s top 10 engineering achievements of the century in celebrations marking Canada's engineering centennial. 


With final (of four) Darlington units in operation, Canada has 22 nuclear power reactors in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. 


Two CANDU reactors are sold to China in what is the largest commercial contract between China and Canada in the 20th century.


Romania’s Cernavoda 1 station begins commercial operation. 


Bruce Unit 3 becomes the first CANDU reactor in the world to reach 100 million MWh of lifetime gross energy production, which is enough to supply a city the size of Thunder Bay for 90 years.  


Korea's Wolsong 2 and 3 units begin commercial operation. 


First tests of mixed oxide fuel (MOX) underway at Chalk River. 


China's Qinshan III unit reaches full power. 


Two CANDU units in China are delivered under budget and four months ahead of schedule, which is the fastest construction of a nuclear power facility in China. 


New Brunswick Power begins refurbishing the Point Lepreau generating station. 


KHNP begins retubing the Wolsong 1 generating station. 


Nuclear energy generates over 58% of Ontario's total electricity. 


Wolsong 1 returns to the grid after a successful retube project extends the life of the station by up to 30 years.


Candu Energy Inc. is created.  


 Bruce Units 1 & 2 returned to the grid after successful retube project.

Point Lepreau generating station returned to commercial operation following successful retube project.